Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery by Shawnee/Lenape legal scholar Steven Newcomb offers readers a unique critique of the foundation of American law regarding American Indian Nations. Employing the findings from cognitive theory as a framework for challenging federal Indian law and its application in the justice system of America, the author provides detailed analysis of the concepts of the chosen people and the Promised Land. He specifically examines the 1823 Supreme Court ruling Johnson v. M'Intosh as it relates to doctrine of Christian discovery and dominion. Justice Marshall's ruling employs terms such as conquer, conquest, natives who were heathens, and Christian people that are all derived from the Old Testament of the Bible. The author maintains that these often unconscious concepts challenge the American claim to the separation of church and state. In this argument, American Indian Nations are not subject to federal Indian law and policy.