This textbook for Canadian nursing and allied health students explores the major health issues of Indigenous populations and how to improve their overall health. The second edition addresses a key development since the first edition was published: an increasing consensus among Indigenous peoples that their health is tied to environmental determinants, both physical and philosophical. This text describes what is distinctive about Indigenous approaches to health and healing and why it should be studied as a discrete field. It provides a framework for professionals to approach Indigenous clients in a way that both respects the client's worldview while retaining a professional epistemology. The author Vasiliki Douglas , BSN, BA, MA, PhD, is an Instructor at the College of New Caledonia, Prince George, BC in the School of Health Sciences and a leading researcher in First Nations and Inuit Health.